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Facts on Hearing Tests

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Facts on Hearing Tests

The vibrations of sound waves vary in intensity and speed or tone. Gentle vibrations make a soft sound, while fast vibrations make a loud noise.

Audiologists use objective tests like tympanometry and acoustic reflex to assess your hearing. These tests measure how well your eardrum moves and whether you have fluid behind the eardrum.

What is a hearing test?

The most common hearing tests is called pure-tone audiometry, and it requires you to wear headphones and listen to a series of tones at different pitches or frequencies. During the hearing test, the audiologist will prompt you to indicate when you hear a tone by raising your hand or pressing a button. This helps determine the softest sounds you can hear at each frequency.

Other tests may include tympanometry, which measures the movement of your eardrum (a flexible barrier that separates your outer and middle ears from your inner ear). This test can help diagnose problems such as fluid or wax buildup, holes or tears in the eardrum, or issues with the bones that connect the eardrum to the inner ear.

Other types of tests include otoacoustic emissions and auditory brainstem response. These tests measure the movement of tiny hair cells in your inner ear, which vibrates and sends signals to your brain when you hear sound. These tests can help detect hidden hearing loss when your brain can’t process sound even though your eardrum can.

Why do I need a hearing test?

If you suspect you have hearing loss, it’s essential to get a screening or full hearing test Sudbury done by an audiologist. A thorough test will determine if you have mild, moderate, or severe hearing loss and what type of hearing loss it is (conductive or sensorineural).

The test involves wearing earphones and pressing a button when you hear sounds transmitted through the earphones. To test your word recognition ability, the audiologist may also ask you to repeat words in different pitches and loudness levels.

An online hearing test can give you a general idea of whether your hearing is normal, but it doesn’t provide an audiogram or detailed results.

What is a hearing test like?

A hearing test usually involves sitting in a sound-treated room and wearing headphones or earplugs connected to a device that plays sounds of different loudness and pitches. You’re asked to raise a hand or press a button when you hear the sounds. The audiologist then plots your responses on an audiogram.

You may also have a speech test or an otoacoustic emissions (OAE) test. These tests measure a part of your inner ear called the cochlea. Tiny hair cells in the cochlea vibrate when a sound wave hits them. These vibrations create an echo that your ear can detect, and OAEs measure the health of those inner hair cells.

Other tests include bone conduction testing, which measures the bones in your ears to see how well they conduct sound, and an auditory brainstem response (ABR) test, which checks the connections or pathways between your inner ear and your brain. Your audiologist will explain these tests in detail.

What can a hearing test tell me?

A full hearing test looks at all the factors that contribute to how well you hear. It also shows if your hearing loss is caused by an ear infection or something else, like tinnitus.

The central part of a hearing test is pure-tone audiometry, which tests your ability to hear tones at different pitches and volumes in a sound-treated room. The audiogram is the graphical representation of the results. An audiologist will explain the data and how it might affect your life.

Other parts of a hearing test include speech audiometry and otoacoustic emissions (OAEs). OAEs measure the responses from your inner ear to sounds. These are generated by tiny hair cells in your middle and inner ears. Your audiologist may also use a tympanometry test that puts a probe in your ear to push air into it. This can check how your eardrum moves and the reflexes of your middle ear muscles.

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9 Benefits of strawberries and side effects

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7 Benefits of Epazote and side effects

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Discover the 7 shocking health benefits of Epazote and side effects.

Epazote, also known as paico or acahualillo, is a widely used medicinal plant, as its essential oils contain vermifuge, antibiotic, digestive properties, and strengthen the immune system.

This plant, whose scientific name is Chenopodium Ambrosioides, grows spontaneously in lands that surround the houses, it has elongated leaves of different sizes and dark green, its flowers are small and whitish.

 

Epazote can be bought in certain markets or health food stores, in its natural form, in dehydrated leaves, or essential oil.

Because it is considered a plant with a degree of toxicity, it should preferably be used under the guidance of a health professional, in addition to the use of tea from its leaves instead of essential oil, since it contains a higher concentration of potentially toxic substances.

Health Benefits of Epazote

Although epazote is a plant that is widely used in traditional medicine, it has few studies that confirm its properties in the body.

Despite this, several investigations have been carried out with this plant in animals, concluding that it has effects such as:

1. Eliminate intestinal parasites

This is one of the most popular uses of epazote and, according to some human studies, the use of this plant has a strong action against different intestinal parasites, such as worms and tapeworms.

This action seems to be related to the main active substance in epazote, ascaridol, which is similar in efficacy to some antiparasitic drugs, such as Albendazole.

2. Benefits of epazote for immune system

According to research carried out in animals, the use of epazote extract seems to be able to regulate the production of some cells important for the body’s defense, such as macrophages and lymphocytes, strengthening the immune system.

The mixture of epazote leaves with milk is popularly used to help in the treatment of respiratory diseases, such as bronchitis and tuberculosis, due to the union of the strengthening effects of the immune system and expectorants that these substances possess.

3. Benefits of epazote for inflammation

Another common use of epazote is in the relief of inflammation, mainly joint problems, such as osteoarthritis. Additionally, the plant also helps relieve pain from inflammation.

This analgesic action was observed in the use of the alcoholic extract of the plant, which seems to act on the NMDA receptors.

4. Benefits of epazote for digestion

Although there are no studies that prove the action of this plant on poor digestion, this is one of the popular uses in which it is used the most.

According to its use, epazote tea can be taken after large meals, to improve digestion, as it could be able to increase gastric juice production.

5. Benefits of epazote for  blood pressure

In Morocco, epazote is frequently used to help treat high blood pressure and, according to studies in mice, this property is due to the stimulation of type 2 muscarinic receptors in the heart that slightly decrease the heart rate. , in addition to relaxing the heart muscle.

6. Combat bacterial, viral, and fungal infections

Both the use of epazote extract and essential oil has shown a powerful antimicrobial action that is capable of eliminating various types of bacteria, viruses, and fungi.

7. Avoid osteoporosis

In some investigations carried out in laboratory mice, the use of the hydroalcoholic extract of epazote was able to prevent the loss of bone density and can be applied to prevent the onset of osteoporosis, especially in women who are close to entering menopause.

Is epazote used to treat coronavirus?

study carried out in 2020 by the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, confirmed the hypothesis that the flavonoids present in epazote may be able to prevent the replication of the new coronavirus, accelerating the recovery and cure of COVID-19.

However, the study was conducted on a computer model and has not been tested in a laboratory, nor living organisms.

For this reason, the dose necessary for treatment is not known, nor are the possible side effects.

For this reason, no health organ recommends the use of epazote as a treatment for COVID-19 until new studies are carried out.

How to use epazote

The most common way to take advantage of the properties of this plant is by infusing its leaves, preparing a tea:

Epazote tea: place a cup of the fresh plant with the seeds in boiling water and let it rest for 10 minutes. Afterward, strain and drink a cup up to 3 times a day.

In addition to infusion, another popular way to use epazote is an essential oil, however, its use must be guided by a naturopath, psychotherapist, or a health professional with experience in the use of medicinal plants.

How to Make epazote tea

Ingredients
8 large stems and leaves of fresh epazote
2 quarts boiling water

Procedure

  • Add epazote to boiling water and let simmer for 2 minutes.
  • ove from heat and let steep for another 3 minutes.
  • Strain and serve.
Side effects of epazote

Side effects of epazote include irritation of the skin and mucous membranes, headache, vomiting, nausea, palpitations, damage to the liver or kidneys, visual disturbances, and seizures, in case of doses higher than recommended or for a time. longer than 3 days in a row.

Is epazote abortifacient?

In high doses, the properties of epazote can act by altering the contractility of the body’s muscles; For this reason, it can have an abortive effect in certain people, not advising its use in pregnant women.

Contraindications

Epazote is contraindicated in pregnant women and children under 2 years of age.

This medicinal herb can be toxic, requiring a medical indication to establish the recommended dose

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Contraindications and side effects of Trazodone

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Discover the Contraindications and side effects of Trazodone.

Trazodone is used in a wide variety of disorders, although it is an antidepressant.

Being depression one of the most prevalent mental disorders worldwide and one of the major causes of disability, its treatment is a matter that the scientific community has taken into account for many years.

The suffering it generates requires sometimes immediate attention since it is one of the disorders with the highest risk of suicide and that generates the most pain both for the person and for those around him.

The treatment of depression is carried out from different areas, one of them being psychopharmacology.

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One of the drugs used in the treatment of depression is trazodone, which we are going to talk about in this article.

Trazodone: what type of substance is it?

Trazodone is a psychotropic drug classified within antidepressants, substances that generate a neurochemical change at the brain level, causing alterations in the levels of certain neurotransmitters, specifically serotonin.

Among antidepressants, it is part and is the main representative of the group of serotonin-2A antagonists and reuptake inhibitors or SARIs, a type of atypical antidepressant.

This drug was designed in Italy in 1966 under the assumption that depression could be based on the existence of low thresholds regarding the perception of pain and suffering, being the product of the lack of integration of aversive experiences.

Trazodone has proven to be an efficient and effective drug in the treatment of depression, reducing passivity and inactivity, as well as the discomfort and suffering associated with said ailment, and facilitating an increase in mood.

However, in addition to this, it also has an anxiolytic and tranquilizing action.

This substance is considered a second-generation antidepressant, along with specific serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), with which it shares part of its mechanism of action, and different dual antidepressants.

Trazodone is sometimes considered to be dual as it has two different effects, although they focus on the same neurotransmission system, compared to the rest, and in addition to an antidepressant effect, it also has calming effects.

How does it work? Mechanism of action of the drug

As we have indicated previously, trazodone is classified as SARI, having a somewhat special mechanism of action among the rest of antidepressants.

Trazodone acts at the serotonergic system level (like most antidepressants) in two specific ways.

In the first place, this substance produces a blockage of brain serotonin reuptake, in such a way that said neurotransmitter remains in the synaptic space for a longer time.

This supposes that it has an agonist effect on the synthesis and maintenance of serotonin at the brain level, it increases its levels (which are decreased during the depression and this is something that correlates with the decrease in the mood).

The aforementioned mechanism of action is the one used by SSRIs, which is why these and trazodone are related and sometimes the latter is included among the first.

However, trazodone has a second effect that differentiates it from other drugs, and that seems contrary to the previous mechanism of action.

And it is also that it acts as an antagonist of serotonin 5-HT2A receptors, preventing or hindering these receptors from being activated.

This second aspect is what makes trazodone have a slightly different profile and effects than other antidepressants.

Regarding its interaction with other neurotransmitter systems, it does not present great anticholinergic effects, something that has made this drug a better option than tricyclics (although the doses must also be regulated) in patients with cerebrovascular and cardiac pathology and dementias.

However, it must be taken into account that it can generate arrhythmias.

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It also has a minor effect on the adrenergic (blocking some receptors) and histaminergic systems, something that can lead to the generation of side effects.

Main indications

The main indication for trazodone is obviously, as an antidepressant that it is, major depression. Its effectiveness is also high in those depressions that appear together with anxiety symptoms.

Its clinical utility has also been observed in other disorders in which there are components of anxiety or that are based on it, such as generalized anxiety disorder, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, or bulimia.

In addition to this, it has also been observed to be useful for the treatment of substance addictions, being a good alternative for patients with withdrawal syndrome to benzodiazepines, and in the treatment of alcoholism (including the presence of delirium tremens).

Another of its indications is insomnia, which is effectively reduced by increasing sleep time without greatly affecting the deep sleep phase.

Although in general, most antidepressants can have the presence of erectile dysfunction or ejaculation problems as a side effect, this effect does not usually occur in trazodone, which seems to generate an increase in libido and is even used as a treatment indicated in erectile dysfunction.

Finally, trazodone has been applied (largely for its relaxing properties) in some cases of schizophrenia, motor problems such as Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, the presence of manic episodes in bipolar disorder, and the behavioral disorders of Alzheimer’s. although a greater amount of study is required regarding the latter.

On a medical level, it has also been used as a sedative in HIV-infected patients and diabetic neuropathies, as well as in other disorders that cause pain such as fibromyalgia. It has a very slight effect at the level of muscle relaxant.

Side effects and contraindications

Trazodone is a very useful drug that has been used in multiple pathologies and disorders, both mental and medical.

However, it can have undesirable consequences in the form of side effects and is even contraindicated in some situations and pathologies.

Secondary symptoms, sedation, and fatigue, the presence of headaches, nausea, and vomiting, gastric disturbances (diarrhea or constipation), appetite disturbances, sweating, tremors (which may lead to seizures in some cases), are common. ringing, numbness, and vision problems.

In some cases, it can also cause chest and muscle pain, altered consciousness, breathing problems, and arrhythmias. Like other antidepressants, trazodone can also contribute to the genesis of suicidal ideation in the first moments of use.

Although, unlike other antidepressants, it does not seem to generate contributes to improving cases of erectile dysfunction or ejaculatory problems, the use of trazodone has been observed and associated with the appearance of priapism, erections that do not disappear on their own. alone and that cause pain to those who suffer from them (which may require urgent and even surgical treatment).

Although it is sometimes used in dementias and has a lower risk than tricyclics of generating heart problems, it requires a high degree of caution in its use and dosage carefully prescribed by the doctor, since it can generate arrhythmias.

It is contraindicated in patients who have just suffered a heart attack, as well as in those with liver or kidney disease.

Caution should be exercised in subjects with bipolarity because if the medication is not regulated, the consumption of trazodone can cause a shift from depressive to manic phase.

It is also contraindicated in people who have suffered from priapism or have Peyronie’s disease.

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Finally, it must be taken into account that trazodone can be excreted in breast milk and transmitted through the placenta so that pregnant and lactating women have contraindicated its use.

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